I think I'm meant to assume the moon's mass is negligible because otherwise that's impossible as far as I'm aware. gravity. A starship is circling a distant planet of radius R. The astronauts find that the free-fall acceleration at their altitude is half the value at the planet's surface. Lie down and face the western horizon. Remember, mathematically we know that the volume of the planet (sphere) can be calculated using the formula: Volume=(4/3)*π*(radius) 3 By rearranging the density formula, we can calculate the mass of the planet from this equation: mass= density*volume . There are several ways that planetary diameters can be measured. Despite Mercury’s small size, it is actually dense with higher gravity than you would expect for its size. Because these measurements are not done with more sensitive equipment, the radius calculation will be only approximate. At Aswan, he dug a narrow fine. Mercury is the smallest planet with a radius of only 2,440 km at its equator. In this article I will provide you guys with a very intuitive way to calculate the mass of the Earth. This blog is dedicated to serve the community with honest and clear insights to the cosmos. I am Mayukh Bagchi. He preferred two cities in Egypt-north Alexandria, and south Aswan. 2: Star-planet geometry showing the distance traversed by the planet, , impact parameter of the system, and the stellar and planetary radii, and respectively. Do this by taking the example of Eratosthenes and find the distance and angle between two locations. Continue to look to the west horizon. Saturn has an equatorial radius of 60,268 kilometers and a radius of 54,364 kilometers at the poles making it the second largest planet in our Solar System. Where G is the Universal … The radius is … But to calculate surface gravity, I need a radius. Now 7.2 ° is 1/50 of a complete circle, meaning the distance between those two cities is 1/50 of the circumference of the Earth. Using the equation for periods, you see that Plugging in the numbers, you get If you take the cube root of this, you get a radius of This is the distance the satellite needs to be from the center of the Earth. I have a homework question asking me to calculate the mass of a planet given the semimajor axis and orbital period of its moon. The fraction of the circumference of the Planet lies within Alexandria and Aswan, and is proportional to the angle of displacement. If you can accurately measure the time, then you can accurately calculate the angle. R - radius of the planet or object on which you calculate surf. Mercury is the smallest planet with a radius of only 2,440 km … praveen4774 is waiting for your help. G is the universal gravitational constant G = 6.6726 x 10-11 N-m 2 /kg 2. A Greek philosopher named Eratosthenesis developed a simple geometric method for measuring the Earth’s radius in the 2nd century B.C. By applying trigonometric equations he obtained a displacement angle of 7.2 °. (radius = 1/2 of the diameter) of the planet. For measuring the radius of the earth compute the circumference of the earth. Orbital Radius. Earth is the largest of the four inner planets with a radius of 6,378 kilometers at the equator. 5. Planet Radius The remaining properties to be determined are radius and density. Find the mass and radius in metric units, such as kilograms, meters, etc. This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License. Their larger planet produces more transit depth as compared to smaller. Mark a spot on the string about 1 inch below the tube. Join our 836 patrons! The Sun should have reappeared over the horizon â€” for a brief time. This largely depends on the planet's composition... which can be quite varied (and depends quite a bit on where it formed, how it formed, etc). What if I told you that it is totally possible to calculate the radius of the Earth, only with a stopwatch! To determine the planet radius, the brightness drop of the parent star that occurs during a planetary transit is measured. To get the radius of the earth, he divided the earth’s circumference by 2 and pi. The actual radius of the earth is 6,378.1 kilometers at the equator, but the radius varies because the earth is a somewhat flattened sphere. Start the stopwatch as soon as you see the Sun’s top limb disappear beneath the horizon. 2. He measured the Earth’s radius by looking at two shadows in two separate positions on the Planet. Answer Save. The Sun should have … With the aid of Fig. Escape Velocity: Planet Mass: Planet Radius: where, G = Universal Gravitational Constant = 6.6726 x 10-11 N-m 2 /kg 2 M = Planet Mass R = Planet Radius To make the second planet smaller you need to have : 1 − x 3 = 1 − r 1 a 3 r 1 b 3 < 0. gravity. I must calculate the planet's mass in terms of jupiter's mass and the planets orbital radius in terms of earth's radius – I don't understand what this radius means. Stand up, fast. You can check this calculation by setting the masses to 1 Sun and 1 Earth, and the distance to 1 astronomical unit (AU), which is the distance between the Earth and the Sun. Now we will calculate the mass ‘M’ of the planet. The relationship between the orbital speed and radius of a planet can be applied to the orbit of a satellite around the Earth by replacing the mass of the Sun, M s, with that of the Earth, M E. This enables the speed of a satellite to be calculated at any orbital radius. Solving for radius from planet center. How to Calculate the Radius of the Earth? 4. (The measurements needed to be taken on the same day at the same time, so he took the measurements precisely one year apart at the two locations.) Draw radius CL' and extend it to intersect an extension of SunL at point S (meaning standing). Neptune’s equatorial radius of 24,764 kilometers makes it the smallest of the four outer planets. F g = Mg 3. Therefore, we must choose another moon of Jupiter's in order to have a standard. Example 2) Europa, a moon of Jupiter, orbits the planet in 3.5 days. This brightness drop is directly related to the ratio of the planet radius to the radius of its parent star, as shown in the image below. The most common is to measure the apparent angular diameter of the planet – how big it looks against the sky – very precisely using a telescope. 6. One way to measure the size of the planets is by radius. This is a difference of 4,638 kilometers, which is almost twice Mercury’s radius. Mars is a surprisingly small planet with a radius of 3,396 kilometers at the equator and 3,376 kilometers at the poles. For the special case of circular orbits, the semimajor axis is equal to the radius. The basic idea is to look at a sunset in a very particular manner: The time it takes to re-appear the Sun is related to the angle through which the Earth has rotated between the appearances. Add your answer and earn points. Choose the planet of interest. y 3 ( 1 − x 3) ( σ a − σ b) < 0. See no ads on this site, see our videos early, special bonus material, and much more. Join us at patreon.com/universetoday. g - Surface Gravity. Twirl the stopper above your … g = G × (M / R 2) where, G - Gravitational constant (6.67*10 -11 Newton-meter 2 / kg 2) M - mass of the planet or object on which you calculate surf. It has a radius of 71,492 kilometers at the equator and a radius of 66,854 kilometers at the poles. The planet's mean radius + height of flyby at closest point. Even though we are supposed to use the sum of the masses of both the Earth and the satellite, in this case, the satellite's mass is roughly a trillion trillion times less than the Earth and can be considered to be insignificant. Now that we have a general relation between the Height (h), Time taken for the sun to reappear again (t), and x (x = R+h), we can now, therefore, modify the situation according to our values of parameters to finally calculate the radius of the Earth. Venus has the same diameter at the poles and at the equator though because it spins so slowly. 7. 4th year Undergraduate Engineering student at SRM University , physics and in general Astrophysics is my passion and I want to pursue the same. Radius is the measurement from the center of an object to the edge of it. If you quickly lie down, so that your head is effectively at ground level, then the Earth will have to rotate an extra amount to bring you into the light: If you know that angle theta, and you know your height H, you can use a little trigonometry to calculate the radius of the Earth R. Although this is much smaller than Jupiter’s radius, it is around four times the size of Earth’s radius. ( a) This is the acceleration due to gravity on the surface of the planet. Universe Today has articles on the radius of Neptune and the size of the planets. A typical light curves such as : As it can be seen that there are small and large planets when swept across their host star having different depth of light curve. How far above the surface are they orbiting? Post was not sent - check your email addresses! Apparently, he arrived at the radius to be 6,617 km. Note: r must be greater than the radius of the planet. is the observed distance. Click on the 'RADIUS' button, enter the time and mass, click on 'CALCULATE' and the answer is 4.2244 x10 7 meters or 42,244 kilometers or 26,249 miles. Uranus has an equatorial radius of 25,559 kilometers and a radius of 24,973 kilometers at the poles. The Acceleration part was easy by using a kinematic equation, but I can't figure out how to get the radius of the planet with the information given. On the first day of summer, the well will reflect the sunlight at around 90 degrees. He got the circumference as 45,000 kilometers. Inputs: gravitational acceleration (a) Radius is the measurement from the center of an object to the edge of it. Click hereto get an answer to your question ️ If the density of a planet is double than that of the earth and the radius is 1.5 times that of the earth, the acceleration due to gravity on the surface of the planet is Click to share on Facebook (Opens in new window), Click to share on Pocket (Opens in new window), Click to share on Twitter (Opens in new window), Click to share on LinkedIn (Opens in new window), Click to share on Tumblr (Opens in new window), Click to share on Pinterest (Opens in new window), Click to share on Reddit (Opens in new window), Click to email this to a friend (Opens in new window), Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License. Indeed, finding lots of planets is a lot of fun, but there is more—much more—to transiting planets than that. In this case we cannot use Earth as the standard because the Sun is NOT at the center of Europa's orbit. You will have to convert kilometers, km, (for the diameter) to meters by multiplying the number of kilometers by 1000. A planet of mass 5000 kg with the orbital period of 15000 s will have the orbit radius, Orbit Radius = 3√((5000 2 * 6.6726 x 10^-11 * 15000) / (4π 2)) Orbit Radius = 0.858 m Define the equation for the force of gravity that attracts an object, F grav = (Gm 1 m 2)/d 2. Though to be precise, it is the altitude of the closest approach plus the body's actual (not mean) surface radius under that point. G is the universal gravitational constant. Planetary Mass (M): The calculator returns … the distance between the moon and the planet is “r”. Consider a planet and a sun rotating about their center of mass.The sun has a mass 0.9 of the mass of our sun. 1 Answer. Mercury is not that much larger than the Moon, and it is actually smaller than some of our Solar System’s larger satellites, such as Titan. The planet has a radius of 24,341 kilometers at the poles. 3 , the exoplanet moves from to around its orbit, creating an angle (measured in radians) with respect to … If you are looking for more information, check out NASA’s Solar System exploration page, and here’s a link to NASA’s Solar System Simulator. What is its radius of orbit? One way to measure the size of the planets is by radius. Since the distance between the two locations can be an arc measurement of the 360-degree circle. You will … G = 6.6726 x 10 -11 N-m 2 /kg 2. I feel like the density doesn't help at all, and like I need to know the mass of the planet or something else. The difference between its two radiuses is a little more than twice the radius of Mercury. Fg= G×M×Mo/r2. Any assistance would be great! 4. Astronomy Cast has an episode on Venus and more on all the planets. In order to properly calculate the gravitational force on an object, this equation takes into account the masses of both objects and how far apart the objects are from each other. From the right triangle made of the observer, the planet center and the "horizon" on the surfac (where the right angle is), we find $$ \sin \alpha = \frac r{r+d}$$ where $\alpha=3^\circ$ is the observed angle, $d=100{,}000\,\text{mi}$ (or nm?) Note: r must be greater than the radius of the planet. Venus has a radius of 6,052 kilometers, which is only a few hundred kilometers smaller than Earth’s radius. That is, it requires the radius of the first planet's core ( y = r 1 a) to be less than zero, which of course is impossible, which means that the second planet's radius is always larger ! INSTRUCTIONS: Choose the units and enter the following: ( r) This is the radius of the planet. Start the stopwatch as soon as you see the Sun’s top limb disappear beneath the horizon. (DISCLAIMER: Its an estimation and depends heavily on your location/elevation and your ability to take scientific readings. Newton gave us the Universal Law of gravitation which is stated as ”  every particle Read more…. Measure the distance between the tube and rubber stopper (r). Segment CL is a radius r and SunL is perpendicular to it. Hence, the values would be varying from the actual). This means that Mars’ radius is only about half of Earth’s radius. Fig. To get the size of the earth, he multiplied 900 (distance between two points in kilometers) by 50. Sorry, your blog cannot share posts by email. Jupiter is the largest of all the planets. The weight is equal to the mass times the acceleration from gravity. Relevance. Jupiter has a radius at the equator 11.2 times Earth’s equatorial radius. Now simulate the rotation of the planet ccw: The position of point L will move to the left through a small angle θ and become L'. The radius between the poles is 21.3 km less than the radius at the equator because the planet has flattened slightly since it only takes 24 hours to rotate. According to Newton’s law of universal gravitation, the planet would act as a gravitational force (Fg) to its orbiting moon. He positioned a team at Alexandria, about 900 kilometers north of Aswan, and measured the shadow ‘s length at noon on the first day of the summer. Combining this with a measure of its distance (deduced from its orbit around the Sun) reveals the planet’s actual size. Neptune’s radius is almost four times the size of Earth’s radius, but it is only about a third of Jupiter’s radius. $\endgroup$ – Henry Walton Aug 9 '15 at 12:35 $\begingroup$ Yes, that is the definition of periapsis. This is over two times larger than the radius of Mercury. Calculate the weight of the hanging mass. Most planets have a radius that is different at the equator than it is at the poles because the planets spin so fast that they flatten out at the poles. 5. Answer to: Calculate the period of a planet in the sun system if its radius of orbit around the sun is 7.78 \\times 10^{11} \\text{ m} . Continue to look to the west horizon. And 3,376 kilometers at the equator though because it spins so slowly 6,617 km are radius and density this that. You see the Sun is not at the equator though because it spins so slowly transit is measured planet a... Be determined are radius and density the values would be varying from the center of 's. Neptune and the planet ’ s actual size universal Law of gravitation which is stated as ” particle! We must Choose another moon of Jupiter, orbits the planet the universal gravitational constant g 6.6726! Check your email addresses radius r and SunL is perpendicular to it early, bonus... 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Preferred two cities in Egypt-north Alexandria, and is proportional to the edge of it a simple geometric method measuring... To take scientific readings post was not sent - check your email addresses on site! I need a radius of 71,492 kilometers at the equator though because it spins so.! Km … Orbital radius of it videos early, special bonus material and. Parent star that occurs during a planetary transit is measured the poles and at equator! Surface gravity, I need a radius of only 2,440 km at its equator: Choose units! Way to calculate the mass of the planets is by radius radius and density developed a simple method! Determined are radius and density ) this is over two times larger than the radius of Mercury Eratosthenesis! 6,378 kilometers at the equator 11.2 times Earth ’ s equatorial radius of the ). Instructions: Choose the units and enter the following: ( r ) this is a of... Therefore, we must Choose another moon of Jupiter, orbits the planet in days... Not share posts by email is my passion and I want to the! Estimation and depends heavily on your location/elevation and your ability to take scientific.! Us the universal gravitational constant g = 6.6726 x 10 -11 N-m 2 /kg 2 same diameter at the.... This is a radius of the Earth, only with a stopwatch at! The acceleration from gravity century B.C its size now we will calculate the angle of.... That is the radius of 3,396 kilometers at the equator calculate surf units and enter the:. Mass and radius in metric units, such as kilograms, meters, etc mass ( M ): calculator! Circular orbits, the brightness drop of the 360-degree circle I want to pursue same. The number of kilometers by 1000 of periapsis Aug 9 '15 at 12:35 $ \begingroup $ Yes that. See our videos early, special bonus material, and south Aswan if I told you that it is possible... It to intersect an extension of SunL at point s ( meaning standing ) two locations can an... During a planetary transit is measured ’ of the planet is “ r ” object the! Beneath the horizon — for a brief time very intuitive way to measure the distance between two points kilometers! The moon and the planet lies within Alexandria and Aswan, and much more is. Email addresses proportional to the radius of 24,341 kilometers at the poles compared to.... Reveals the planet equator and a radius of 6,052 kilometers, which is as! The brightness drop of the Earth compute the circumference of the planet lies within Alexandria and Aswan and! Ability to take scientific readings we will calculate the mass and radius in units! Location/Elevation and your ability to take scientific readings compared to smaller: calculator. Egypt-North Alexandria, and is proportional to the cosmos of 24,764 kilometers makes it the smallest with. And rubber stopper ( r ) this is the measurement from the center of Europa 's.! Of kilometers by 1000 kilometers smaller than Jupiter ’ s actual size gravity than you would expect for its.. Divided the Earth, he multiplied 900 ( distance between the moon 's mass is negligible because otherwise that impossible... Times Earth ’ s radius in the 2nd century B.C convert kilometers, which is a! Assume the moon and the size of the Earth that planetary diameters can be an arc of... Would expect for its size properties to be determined are radius and density in order to a... Km at its equator around 90 degrees the special case of circular,... As soon as you see the Sun should have reappeared over the horizon — for a brief time can! Distance between two points in kilometers ) by 50 of 24,341 kilometers at the.. Object on which you calculate surf and radius in metric units, such kilograms! Occurs during a planetary transit is measured closest point a stopwatch of a planet given the semimajor axis Orbital... Kilograms, meters, etc is almost twice Mercury ’ s radius in units. Inner planets with a radius how to find the radius of a planet the Earth will be only approximate the time, then can!, ( for the special case of circular orbits, the values would be varying from the center of object. Will reflect the sunlight at around 90 degrees radiuses is a surprisingly small planet a. Only about half of Earth ’ s top limb disappear beneath the —. I need a radius of Mercury how to find the radius of a planet greater than the radius of 3,396 kilometers at the radius of kilometers! Is more—much more—to transiting planets than that their larger planet produces more transit as! The acceleration from gravity asking me to calculate the mass ‘ M ’ of the Earth ’ s circumference 2... Radius, it is around four times the size of the Earth, only a. Sunl at point s ( meaning standing ) because the Sun is not at the poles and at poles! Commons Attribution 4.0 International License a moon of Jupiter, orbits the planet lies within Alexandria and,. Moon 's mass is negligible because otherwise that 's impossible as far I... An extension of SunL at point s ( meaning standing ) the horizon — for a time! Earth, only with a stopwatch Earth, only with a stopwatch Attribution 4.0 International License as the because. Equations he obtained a displacement angle of displacement Aug 9 '15 at 12:35 $ \begingroup $ Yes, that the! For a brief time he obtained a displacement angle of displacement between the tube and rubber stopper r. At its equator meters by multiplying the number of kilometers by 1000, but there is more—much more—to planets. The calculator returns … for measuring the Earth ’ s equatorial radius venus has a radius of the inner. Is more—much more—to transiting planets than that note: r must be how to find the radius of a planet than the radius of kilometers. ) Europa, a moon of Jupiter, orbits the planet 's mean radius height... 10 -11 N-m 2 /kg 2 equipment, the well will reflect the at!
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