It is said that Spanish flamenco dancing was influenced by the rhythms of Arab music. In the medieval period, and even today, names of many of these musical instruments are derived from Arabic: Spanish Name            Arabic Origin              English Meaning, albogón                      al-buq                         brass flute resembling, albogue                      al-buq                         pastoral recorder, adufe                          al-duff                         Moorish type tambourine, ajabeba or axabeba  al-shabbabah             transverse flute, añafil                           al-nafir                        Moorish trumpet, atabal                          al-tabal                       kettledrum, atambor or atamor   al-tunbur                    drum, canón                          qanun                         an obsolete stringed, carrizo                         karrij                           an antiquated music, itara                            qitarah                        zither, gaita                            ghayta                        Spanish bagpipe, guzla                           ghazal                         one string rebec, nácara                         naqqarah                    cavalry drum, laúd                             al-‘ud                          lute, nakib                           naqb                                    flute, panderete                  bandayr                      small tambourine, quitarra                      qitarah                        guitar, rabel                   rabab                          rebec, rota                             rutah                          rote – a medieval violin, sonajas de azófar      sunuj al-sufr             metal clappers, tambor                       tanbur                       drum, tamborete                  tanbur                        small drum. I opened the door of my room and followed the sound until I reached the part of the house whence I could overlook the neighbours. The conquered Muslims, until well into the 16th century, were allowed to have their music-filled evenings. Spain – A Companion to Spanish Studies. To him is credited the addition of the fifth string to the ‘ud (lute) and the invention of plectrums made from eagles’ talons which replaced the wooden ones in use until his time. In the Córdoba of the caliphs, choice leather goods were the city’s trademark. Most typical of this area in southern Spain are the blues and greens used in stylized drawings of birds, flowers and pomegranates. Poetry, the intrinsic element of Arab culture, accompanied Arab music, some poetry music in itself. One of these groups is the Moors, the Arab and Berber Muslims who conquered parts of present-day Spain in the 8th century and lived there for almost 800 years. Their influence on the Spanish language was also profound. Leiden: E.J. I saw the same products being produced in Damascus!” The man looked up at me and smiled, “It’s not strange! There is no doubt that the music of the West has been influenced by the rhythms of Arab melodies. It is said that when al-Mahdi, one of the last caliphs in Cordova, entertained, the sound of a hundred lutes and a hundred flutes would fill the air. London: Oxford University Press, Vol. Describing this experience, he wrote: ‘The people are absolutely dominated by their passion for music. Ubrique, besides being noted for its Flamenco Festival, is also a town where numerous handmade leather products are produced; saddle and harness making are an important industry in Seville, Carmona and Eija; and Villalba del Acor, along with a number of neighbouring towns, is famed for their tobacco pouches and gun cases. Catalan also has some words that were of Arabic origin, but the Spanish language has more. Perhaps if you can research in Arabic this would be easier to find. In Moorish Spain it was later modified by Greek music and song giving birth to the Arab-Andalusian … As I travelled through that beautiful and charming land, I could see the vestiges of the Arabs infused in and connected to almost every facet of life there. The Moorish culture has left a mark not only on the Spanish language, but also on the customs, art, and culture found across the Iberian Peninsula. All this came about, in the main, as a result of the 900 years the Arabs were in Spain – first as conquerors then as conquered. When discussing Spanish folk songs such as the lyrics of the flamenco, N. B. Adams in the Heritage of Spain, writes that there is decidedly something Oriental, at least un-European about simple melodies heavily adorned, with distinctive rhythms. PROVO, Utah (Mar. Adams, Nicholson B. : it is of pure Arab origin. During my many subsequent visits to southern Spain, I often thought of this chance incident in Albaicín. Seman, K .1. It is said that the majority of Alfonso’s cantigas were direct translations of Arab zajal verses. The Arab music brought to Spain by Ziryab embellished Cordova’s golden years, from the ninth to the twelfth century, when this capital of Arab Spain rivalled Baghdad as the richest, and most intellectual and powerful city in the world and in which all the sciences, including music, were pursued. Watt, W.M. Arnold, T. and Guillaume, A. Legacy of Islam. But research by honest scholars, in the last century, has established that not only measured music but the popular Spanish music and, in fact, the folk music of all South­west Europe, was taken from Arab-Andalusian sources. Like purebred Arabian horses, sparks flew from their eyes as they held their heads high. The well-known 12th century poet from Cordova, Ibn Quzman, used to boast that his zajal was sung as far away as the eastern Arab world. He arrived in Andalusia in 82l A.D. directly from the court of Baghdad. Hispano-Arabic Poetry and Its Relations With the Old Provençal Troubadours. His voice vibrating inside the walls of Los Gallos entered my very soul. ... "Arabic letters, Arabic phrases. Despite most dictionaries deriving flamenco from the word Flemish, the name is probably a mispronunciation of the Arabic fallah manju (fugitive peasant). Despite the many religious wars in the past, the Spaniards have, to a great extent, preserved their Arab heritage, especially in the field of handicrafts, dance and music. Through usage in Spanish, felagmengu was transformed into flamenco. No different than the captivating cry of a Bedouin singing a mawwal (emotional ballad) in the open desert, it gave me a feeling of exhilaration. Closely associated with the haunting music of the Arabs are the fiery, dances of Spain the most well-known being the flamenco. A little further on, the same Arab-type kilns, used for at least eight centuries, are still baking pottery in Almería and at the nearby towns of Alhabia, Albox, Nijar and Sorbas. The music of the Arabian Peninsula had a rich background. Two of his friends took good care of him but at night when he tried to rest the loud noises of musical instruments and vulgar singing, from the neighbouring homes, kept him awake and increased his misery. ALL ABOUT TURKISH, ARABIC and PERSIAN MUSIC Each of Turkish, Arabic and Persian music carry the influences of the cultures they have encountered and the long history of the lands they were born. Latin music is the result of a complex social and historical process that took place in the Americas after the arrival of Columbus. Minneapolis: The University of Minnesota Press, 1974. Sarabande, originally, a dance considered disreputable in 16th-century Spain, and, later, a slow, stately dance that was popular in France.Possibly of Mexican origin or perhaps evolved from a Spanish dance with Arab influence that was modified in the New World, it was apparently danced by a double line of couples to castanets and lively music. After the Muslim defeat in Spain, their music was not lost. Today, the old Arab embossing techniques are still in use. He was a marvellous entertainer and enchanted the court of Cordova for years with his wit, music and song. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2013, Nykl, A.R. Then it began increasing slowly in volume. Al-Farabi defined rhythms, Ibn Rushd wrote Kitab al-Musiqi al-Kabir, which was one of the greatest books on music ever published and Ibn Bajjah wrote a book which is lost but is said to have rivalled Ibn Rushd’s. The talents of the well-trained Moorish musicians and singers were known throughout all of southern Europe. From the very beginning, these entertainers, not only sung Arabic poetry in its authentic and sentimental state but also, in its method and construction. According to Ann Livermore in A Short History of Spanish Music, the peasants as they gather the olives for which Spain is renowned, sing songs which still carry Arab rhythms and the esquileos, shearing songs, are even today sung in the Arabic scale. And, until now, this type of song and music continues to be sung by famous singers across the whole of the modern Arab world. The Arab music brought to Spain by Ziryab had borrowed much from the music and song of the neighbouring countries and then developed into the distinctive melodies of the Arab East. Chejne, A.G., Muslim Spain – Its History and Culture. I saw a large garden with about twenty people in the centre, seated in a row, with sweets, fruits and drinks before them. However, when the Spanish Inquisition banned everything Arab and Muslim, including music and song, Moorish entertainment faded from the land. Government In government the Arabs developed free enterprise, the national flag, tax collection and the system of law and order. The fire and fervour of yesteryear were there, but in an abridged fashion. Cobb, Stanwood. Juan Castilla Brazales, professor of Arabic Studies at the Escuela de Estudios Árabes in Granada, discussed Arab-Muslim influence on the Iberian Peninsula for the Department of Spanish and Portuguese. Moorish Spain. Almost a decade later in the same establishment in Seville, remembering that exciting evening, I felt a surge of joy and anticipation as I waited for the flamenco show to begin. One could argue that these influences are only on the periphery of Christian worship, but there are other influences that are felt in the church itself. Madison: The University of Wisconsin Press, 1973. The following few examples will give an idea of some of these words: SPANISH WORD                ARABIC ORIGIN                ENGLISH MEANING, albórbola                    al-walwalah                joyful shouts, alboroto                     al-buruz                      tumult or uproar, algarabía                     al- ‘arabiyah              clamour or jabbering, algazara                      al-ghazarah                din or clamour, alarido                         al-gharid                     howl or shout, aborozar, aborozo    al-buruz                      joy or gaiety, jaleo                            hallala                          cheering or noisy time, leila                              lailah                   party or fiesta, olé                               wa-Allah                    bravo (Oh God! Other Andalusian wood artisans turn out fine musical instruments, concentrating on guitars, and attractive furniture, like the Mudéjar-style cabinets made in Capileira. To express their suffering these fugitives developed the cante jondo (deep song), the original heart of the dance. One of the principle contributors to Spanish music was Ziryab, one of the greatest teachers of musicians and singers of all times. Payne, S.G. A History of Spain and Portugal. Arab merchants from Seville were found in that part of continent, selling their well-made instruments, many of which can still be seen in historic Spanish paintings. Seville rang with song and music. The zajal and muwashshahat type of verse and song were the most famous, the creation of the muwashshah attributed to Muqaddam ibn Mu’afa al-Qabri (born in Cabra near Cordova – d.circa 900). Islam and the Medieval West. (ed.) Further, it is believed that the classical nauba, a musical performance with many instruments, which was common in Arab Spain, is the forerunner of the European military bands and symphonies. In this article I wanted to talk about the possible Jewish roots of spanish flamenco music. Potters in Guadix are famous for their filigree jars, full of ornamental details, inherited from the Nasrid (the last Arab dynasty in Spain) times. For many centuries, Latin/Spanish and Arabic existed side by side. Among the other Arab influenced handicrafts in Andalusia is Seville’s production of religious embroidery by the use of gold and silver threads with silks and velvets – an inheritance from the artisans in Damascus. Al-Mu’tamid, the greatest of the ‘Abbadids, made his court hospitable to poets and literary men and women. The finest example of this is when it comes to Spanish music and dance. It is said that the majority of Alfonso’s cantigas were direct translations of Arab zajal verses. Nevertheless, as to its name and origin it is a different story. In the west of Andalusia, around Huelva, old Moorish techniques are used in the production of small ewers with large mouths, used by fishermen to capture squid. Yet, the development of music was at the beginning difficult in Islam’s first years of religious zeal. Besides the extremely important Arab contribution to Europe of measured music there were other contributions in related fields. 16, 2017)—How much of Spanish culture comes from the Arab Muslims who centuries ago ruled the country? Today, in Egypt and Lebanon, zajal continues to be a popular folk art. While Islam is the predominant religion, other religious groups are accepted and treated with respect.Most Arabs believe that most of life’s events are controlled and orchestrated by God. In Moorish Spain lovers would serenade with their ‘ud the objects of their love. This fact is visible in their scale systems and the instruments they make use of. juan martin:guitar, abdelsalam khair: oudtrack: evocacion de damasco a cordoba-from damascus to cordoba-من دمشق إلى قرطبةgood stuff.. Furst Co., 1970. al-Makkari, Ahmed Ibn Mohammed. Muslim musicians flourished at the courts of the kings of Castile and Aragon. Islam inherited this rich poetic-music legacy and when their armies conquered much of the then known world, they took this music with them. A Short History of Spanish Music. Muqaddam ibn Qabri, born in Cabra near Cordova, was the father of muwashshah. The medieval ‘hocket’ is a combination of notes and pauses and is derived from the Arabic iqa’at.”. Arabic Middle Eastern Influenced Instrumental Spanish Guitar Music Playlist Throughout this period and long thereafter, Arab-Andalusian music and poetry belonged not only to the wealthy but also to the workers and peasants. Játiva, a city in eastern Spain, even after the Christian occupation in the 13th and 14th centuries continued to be famous for its musicians and singers. The romerias, celebrations held near Christian shrines and still seen in modern Spain, were originally visits to the shrines of Muslim holy men that were passed from the Moorish to the Christian communities. And all this time there had been no sound of a human voice. Although now sung in Spanish, there is no doubt that its origins go back to the Arabic songs of the Moors. A History of Islamic Spain. Closely associated with the haunting music of the Arabs are the fiery, dances of Spain, the most well known being the flamenco. Also supporting the impressive contribution of measured music made by the Arabs, we find in the Legacy of Islam that in mensural notation, particular kinds of notes bearing such names as elmuarifa and elmuahym are of Arabic origin. Toronto: McClelland and Stewart Ltd., 1976. E. Sordo in his book Moorish Spain understood this connection when he wrote: “…The ole of the cante jondo is still the wa Allah (Oh God) with which the Arabs cheered every poetic recitation.”. The New Oxford History of Music, Ancient and Oriental Music. It is as if the Al-Andalus of the Arabs continues to live on. In the same manner as in most Spanish places of entertainment, to appeal to tourists, the authentic flamenco had been transformed into a somewhat modern commercial spectacle. He was also an accomplished singer who accompanied himself on the ‘ud and composed poetry, especially to his queen, I’timad, with whom he was infatuated all of his life. Longwood Press, Portland, Maine, 1976. These styles originate in the indigenous, European, and African heritage of Latin America; the particular combination of influences varies by country, region, and social group. The 900 years the Arabs spent in Spain, first as conquerors then as the conquered have left their mark. Flamenco, form of song, dance, and instrumental (mostly guitar) music commonly associated with the Andalusian Roma (Gypsies) of southern Spain. Never did a dance before or after affect to such a degree my very being. Further, the Arabs introduced into Europe frets, from the Arabic fard (notch), bars on the fingerboards of stringed instruments to regulate the fingering. Albany: State University of New York Press, 1980. Beautifully costumed, their tight-bodice multi-coloured dresses flaring at the hips and covering their legs with countless ruffles matched the carnations in their hair. Edinburgh: Edinburgh University Press, 1965. Western scholars have for many centuries denied that the Arabs contributed greatly to the melodies and dances of Europe. Emil Naumann in his History of Music notes “…we cannot fail….to be struck with the remarkable similarity which the melodies of the Koran bear to the responses and chants of the Catholic liturgy.”. We can trace our ancestry to Syria. He was steeped in the knowledge of refined music and established a conservatory of music in Cordova – the first in Europe. This has added much to the rich culture of Spain and by way of Spain to the Spanish-speaking Latin-American countries. Although not supported by etymologies in most dictionaries, D.E. (There, the Roma people are called Gitanos.) Western scholars have for many centuries refused to admit that the Arabs contributed greatly to the melodies and dances of Europe. Under his influence, the traditions of Medina and the classical music school of al-Mawsili in Baghdad whose pupil he had been took root in Spain and flourished. Visitors to Spain who enjoy the pleasures of the traditional flamenco, the pinnacle of Spanish folkloric art but now largely a tourist oriented folk extravaganza, as they mimic the Spaniards shouting olé, usually have no idea that it is saturated with many vestiges from Spain’s Moorish past. Each of Arab Spain’s city states became noted for excelling in one or the other of the arts, but Seville outshone them all. Gore Ouseley (ed). These two types of song and music were widely sung and appreciated by both the Muslims and Christians in all parts of the Iberian Peninsula and spread throughout the Arabic-speaking world of his time. Read, J. These musicians, poets and singers were the pathfinders of their era. (Vol.I). In their last years in Granada, the Moors were the first people in Europe to use the letters of the alphabet to denote finger position on the guitar. Ithaca, New York: Cornell University Press, 1975. Arabic music or Arab music (Arabic: الموسيقى العربية ‎, romanized: al-mūsīqā al-ʿArabīyah) is the music of the Arab world with all its diverse music styles and genres. From the deserts of the Arabian Peninsula, the Arabs brought their mawwals and qasidas (deep songs and epic poems), elements that were absorbed into the flamenco songs. From this city, the kings of Castile and Aragon would engage Arab musicians and singers to entertain their courts with the songs of muwashshahat and zajal, accompanied by musicians playing the ajabeba, canón, rabel and añafil. Under this culture-oriented dynasty, poetry, music and singing reached dazzling heights. In that age of tawa’if kings, musicians and singers were honoured in every city state as never before in history. Spanish Music [the Canary Islands are not show in this map] ... (música andalusí) is the term use to define the classical Arabic music of Medieval Al-Andalus, which was the name given to Muslim-occupied Spain as well as current North African classical Arabic music. The Arab music brought to Spain by Ziryab had borrowed much from the music and song of the neighbouring countries and then developed into the distinctive melodies of the Arab East. Through the years, only the language and instrument have changed. One can easily hear and see the similarities if one listens to the mawwals of the Arab East, or as some scholars have indicated, to the muezzin calling the faithful to prayer, and if one observes the Berber dances of the Atlas Mountains in Morocco. About 4,000 words of Arabic origin or influenced by Arabic are found in the regional varieties of Spanish, which can be heard if you are to travel around the southern part of the Iberian Peninsula. Al-Yamani’s description of this music and song was not unique to Malaga. As in Arab times, jewellery making, important in the Moorish era, has again become a flourishing industry in Cordóba. Some Spaniards are looking to explore the enduring Islamic influence in the nation's music, food, and architecture. The South of Spain. It is believed that the zajal gave rise to the villancico, a type of Spanish Christmas carol and from the zajal and muwashshahat the Spanish cantigas developed. Livermore, A. Arabic countries have many rich and varied styles of music and also many linguistic dialects , with each country and region having their own traditional music . The Moors in Spain and Portugal. In the later centuries, the Arabs of the east held on to their own traditional music and song while in North Africa and Spain the Arab/Andalusian melodies took root. A 13th century Arab author, Zakariya al-Qazwini, describing a village he visited in Muslim Spain, wrote that almost every inhabitant was interested in literature and music and many peasants were capable of improvising poetry and song. The Arab influence is more evident in the southern part of the peninsula. London & New York: Johnson Reprint Co., 1964. He became famous as his type of verse spread throughout the Arabic-speaking world of his time. Government In government the Arabs developed free enterprise, the national flag, tax collection and the system of law and order. The roots of flamenco, though somewhat mysterious, seem to lie in the Roma migration from Rajasthan (in northwest India) to Spain between the 9th and 14th centuries. The prototype of this most Spanish of all musical instruments was introduced into Spain by the famous Arab musician Ziryab in the 9th century and it evolved to become the modern guitar. Later Arabic was abandoned for the languages of southern Europe but the Arabic format remained. In fact, the culture of the Spain was also influenced, as the Moors introduced several cultural i… The ole of the cante hondo is still the wa-Allah ‘oh God’ with which the Arabs cheered every poetic recitation.”. The Alhambra in Granada, the Mesquita of Cordóba, the Alcázar in Seville, and above all, Andalusia’s culture and artisan products, testify to the rich artisan legacy the Arabs bequeathed to Andalusia and to a lesser extent to all of Spain. 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