A study found that male Song Sparrows from the coast of Washington state came into breeding condition two months earlier than Song Sparrows in the nearby mountains, where the daylight changes were the same, but temperatures were cooler and trees budded out two months later. An unbiased molecular approach using 3’UTRs resolves the avian family-level tree of life, "Systema Naturae 2000 / Classification, Class Aves", "Higher-order phylogeny of modern birds (Theropoda, Aves: Neornithes) based on comparative anatomy. Gauthier, J.  Combined, insectivorous birds eat 400–500 million metric tons of arthropods annually.. The amount of parental care after fledging varies; albatross chicks leave the nest on their own and receive no further help, while other species continue some supplementary feeding after fledging. Flight is the primary means of locomotion for most bird species and is used for searching for food and for escaping from predators.  Some species may use more than one system depending on the circumstances. Despite the large differences in size and coloration across the Song Sparrowâs range, genetic divergence is low. Amateur bird enthusiasts (called birdwatchers, twitchers or, more commonly, birders) number in the millions.  Plants and pollinating birds often coevolve, and in some cases a flower's primary pollinator is the only species capable of reaching its nectar. A few parrots of the genus Loriculus roost hanging upside down. Gauthier defined Aves to include only the crown group of the set of modern birds. Landbirds have a flight range of around 2,500 km (1,600 mi) and shorebirds can fly up to 4,000 km (2,500 mi), although the bar-tailed godwit is capable of non-stop flights of up to 10,200 km (6,300 mi). In spring and summer, Song Sparrows are one of the most conspicuous of all sparrows.  Chicks may also follow their parents during their first migration.  Centripetal moults of tail feathers are however seen in the Phasianidae. Most birds have a poor sense of smell with notable exceptions including kiwis, New World vultures and tubenoses. Species that are victims of brood parasites have varying egg colours to improve the chances of spotting a parasite's egg, which forces female parasites to match their eggs to those of their hosts.. After the innermost tertiaries are moulted, the secondaries starting from the innermost begin to drop and this proceeds to the outer feathers (centrifugal moult). A rich, russet-and-gray bird with bold streaks down its white chest, the Song Sparrow is one of the most familiar North American sparrows. Among most groups of animals, male parental care is rare.  It has been suggested that there may be certain kinds of sleep which are possible even when in flight.  Once the blood reaches the heart, it moves first into the right atrium, then the right ventricle to be pumped through the lungs for further gas exchange of carbon dioxide waste for oxygen. , Birds have evolved a variety of mating behaviours, with the peacock tail being perhaps the most famous example of sexual selection and the Fisherian runaway. , Birds can act as vectors for spreading diseases such as psittacosis, salmonellosis, campylobacteriosis, mycobacteriosis (avian tuberculosis), avian influenza (bird flu), giardiasis, and cryptosporidiosis over long distances. The steamer ducks (Tachyeres), geese and swans (Anserinae), the solitaire (Pezophaps), sheathbills (Chionis), some guans (Crax) and stone curlews (Burhinus) use a bony knob on the alular metacarpal to punch and hammer opponents. While they were the dominant group of avialans during the Cretaceous period, enantiornithes became extinct along with many other dinosaur groups at the end of the Mesozoic era.. , Most birds scoop water in their beaks and raise their head to let water run down the throat. , They may also serve as religious symbols, as when Jonah (Hebrew: יוֹנָה, dove) embodied the fright, passivity, mourning, and beauty traditionally associated with doves.  Birds may also interact using repertoire-matches, wherein a bird responds with a song type that is in its rival's repertoire but is not the song that it is currently singing. Much like a mammalian heart, the avian heart is composed of endocardial, myocardial and epicardial layers.  Some species, including cattle egret, yellow-headed caracara and galah, have spread naturally far beyond their original ranges as agricultural practices created suitable new habitat. , Based on fossil and biological evidence, most scientists accept that birds are a specialised subgroup of theropod dinosaurs, and more specifically, they are members of Maniraptora, a group of theropods which includes dromaeosaurids and oviraptorosaurs, among others.  The heart itself is divided into a right and left half, each with an atrium and ventricle. The extinct Xenicibis was unique in having an elongate forelimb and massive hand which likely functioned in combat or defence as a jointed club or flail.  Monogamy allows for both paternal care and biparental care, which is especially important for species in which females require males' assistance for successful brood-rearing. 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